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Era of the Flapper Women went through a drastic cultural change from before World War I to the 1920 s. After the First World War, women no longer considered themselves economically or politically below men s standards. Beyond the change of clothing, sex appeal, smoking cigarettes, and late night jazz clubs, the overall morale of women changed. No longer would they be considered a chamber maid or a housewife. Nevertheless, what came with the sex was the sex appeal. Revealing more skin to a man s eye let the woman express her new found enjoyment in a more fashionable manner. The flapper would not have come into existence without the acts of propaganda, sex, and employment. Before World War I, sex was much more private than it was in the flapper era. Many women of the older generation were outraged by the younger generation of women. [i] The older generation was not used to the new fashion statement and lifestyle change. These Victorian women knew their traditions were dying; it was only a matter of time. [ii] "Sex o clock in America" was the key phrase used by social commentators during this time.[iii] This phrase indicated the sexual appeal of the younger generation. Many young women also engaged in premarital sex. Surveys showed 36 to 39 percent of women lost their virginity before getting married.[iv] It was also reported the "New Woman" experienced more orgasms than her mother of the previous age.[v] Technology played an important part in the rise of women s sexual appetites. The automobile allowed young women to run off with their boyfriends. Most Victorian women called the automobile the "devil s wagon".[vi] Prior to World War I the corset was the status symbol of a woman s delicacy and sexual availability.[vii] The problem with the corset was restriction of oxygen flow, crushed internal organs and caused long term medical illnesses.[viii] This fashion style would eventually wither away after World War I. Fashion changed for young women during the 1920 s. Many high schools in America implemented new dress codes which would hinder the new fashion styles.[ix] Bar Moncler Down Jackets Men No Hat Coffee silk stockings, short skirts, bobbed hair, and sleeveless dresses were all new fashion garments for young women.[x] Most women believed their clothing style asserted their right to make personal choices.[xi] Coco Chanel eventually became the lead manufacturer of flapper attire. She revolutionized the way young American women appeared. Chanel raised hem lines above the ankles, provided a sleeker outline, and made women s clothing more maneuverable.[xii] Hemlines would rise slowly over the years. This angered the older generation of women.[xiii] By 1929, more than half of single women were employed.[xiv] World War I gave much of the women in America the opportunity for employment. After the war, many women believed earning money helped them buy real freedom.[xv] A lot of young women had come from the rural parts of America and wanted better economic opportunities.[xvi] Women workers often times lived in apartments or boardinghouses to get away from their parents.[xvii] Some women wanted money to support the flapper fashion statement.[xviii] In the 1890 s, urban nightlife was unheard of. Women who lived in the cities during the 1920 s had opportunities Moncler Sneakers Men to go out at night with their boyfriends.[xix] Many women factory workers made about $22 a week. This amount was just shy of poverty and sometimes needed help. Some young women had boyfriends to buy them dinner and take them out.[xx] Other women, who lived with family members, donated their earnings to their parents.[xxi] Personal appearance played a big role in the flapper era. Many women bought into the advertisements aimed towards physical appearances. Advertisers knew it would be difficult to persuade women so they created ads Moncler Women Coats Down Jura Hooded Buttons Dark Blue like the Lucky Strike cigarette poster.[xxii] Because of World War I, American advertisers knew how harness propaganda better and use it towards American consumers.[xxiii] Women s make up became a popular propaganda success during the 1920 s. Cosmetic companies used the phrase "Find Yourself" by applying make up to your face.[xxiv] The older Victorian generation believed wearing make up was a way to hide one s inner self. The young women believed it gave women a sense of empowerment and pride. Young women were persuaded into keeping themselves beautiful on the outside. It was believed, if women had a bad complexion, people noticed. [xxv] Nightlife played an important role for the flapper lifestyle. Many young women would snuck off at night to go dancing with their boyfriends. The older Victorian generation did not have such an active nightlife as the younger women. Technology helped young women and men become more actively involved with one another. Electric lamps replaced gas lamps by 1900 and most of the urban street cars were electrified.[xxvi] Due to the mechanization of America, many men and women worked shorter hours during the week which gave them more time and money to spend on themselves. The urbanized lifestyle allowed people to see and experience dance halls, baseball stadiums and amusement parks. [xxvii] The 1920 s was a time when women became more cognizant of their sexuality and their overall morale. The flapper is more than just women wearing fancy clothes; it s a statement of personal freedom and independence. Most young flapper women were subjected to propaganda. Advertisers and designers like Coco Chanel used this opportunity wisely and help support the American economy. Women chose to work so they would be able to support their lifestyle and have a reason to get away from their parents. This was an era when technology rivaled over old traditions and set the younger women apart from the older generation. This was the era of the flapper.